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The Kamp Family

When Margot Cohen Goldberg was born in Duesseldorf Germany, her four grandparents were living, contributing to an idyllic childhood until the Nazi era. All the grandparents lived in or near Duesseldorf or in nearby Krefeld /Huls.

photo girl

Margot's paternal grandmother, Eva Kamp Cohen is part of the Kamp family from Krefeld. We are fortunate to know more about the Kamp family from research conducted by both relatives and a Kamp family friend, Karin Kammann. The focus of this research is now a book, Die Geschichte der jüdischen Familie Kamp aus Krefeld (The history of the Jewish Kamp family from Krefeld)

We were given permission by the author and publisher to translate and share some of the chapters of Die Geschichte der jüdischen Familie Kamp aus Krefeld. While this book is important to our family history, in many respects it represents the history of many German-Jewish familiies before, during, and after the Nazi era.

Notes on the following book excerpts:

  1. Many names are mentioned in the following story. Check GoldbergCohenFamily family treesfor more information.
  2. Excellent research on families in this region is available at Familienbuch-euregio website
  3. Our additional information on the people mentioned or events described in the excerpts is included as footnotes.
  4. We added the topic headlines in the excerpts to break up the text and make it easier to read online

Thank you to René van Praag, RVP Publishers, Karin Kammann, Nico Kamp, Rolf Kamp, Inge Kamp, Coen Hilbrink for permission to include excerpts from this book.

Why Krefeld?

Krefeld was a tolerant city. There was political freedom and the freedom to build businesses, do research. Thus the city prospered and began to emerge from its anonymity. This is what drew the family Kamp to move to Crefeld 150 years ago. Crefeld was spelled with a C at that time. Note: More history on the city is in the book.

Early KAMP family

The oldest known KAMP family member was Josef, also called Jossel CAIN or Falck CAMP. He was from Friesheim near Ertstad. His wife's name was Biel (or spelled Bile) and they had two sons: Josef and Isaac. Josef took the surname CAHN and stayed in Friesheim. his brother Isaac, born around 1740 in Friesheim, moved to Dirmerzheim near Gymnich/Elsdorf,and married Dege ANDRES, daughter of Anschel ANDRES, who in 1760 was the only Jew in Dirmerzheim. Isaac and Dege both lived until 1816 and had five children.

The oldest child of Isaac and Dege, Abraham CAMP, was born in 1768 in Dirmerzheim. Abraham married Sophia EPHRAIM, who was born in Tiel/Holland and died in 1844 in Dirmerzheim. Abraham may have left Dirmerzheim for Holland since he is not mentioned in the census in 1799 and 1800. Abraham and Sophie had six known children. In 1804, a marriage announcement of Abraham and Sophie's son, Andreas, mentioned that Abraham and his family lived in Bodesgraven, a small town in the south of Holland, between Utrecht and The Hague. However, after 1808, Abraham and his family moved back to Dirmerzheim, because several of his other children started families there. Even today this branch of the family is still known as the "Dutch branch". [1]

Abraham and Sophie's son Andreas KAMP married Adolphine Sibilla DANIELS. [2]

Andreas and Adolphine first child, Alexander KAMP, was born May 3, 1829 in Korschenbroich. His birth certificate listed his father Andreas as a merchant assistant, indicating that he was not in business for himself but worked for someone. All of their children left Dirmerzheim to earn a living. Two sons lived in Kommern/Eifel, one son and one daughter returned to Kesteren near Tiel/Holland. One son lived in Berg near Nideggen. The oldest son, Andreas KAMP, who took the Hebrew name Ascher Ha-Kohen, moved to Korschenbroich (near Gladbach) before his marriage in 1827 to Adolphine Sibilla DANIELS, who at the time was working as a maid.

On December 26, 1831, the couple had a daughter Sophia. Three years later Andreas KAMP died on April 9, 1834, in Loga, which is near Leer. His death certificate lists the cause of death apoplexy. Also that he was Jewish and leaves his wife and two minor children. It is assumed he was traveling on behalf of his employer, a horse trader. When and how Adolphine Sibilla learned the news of his death is not known. At the time she was pregnant with her third child, and on October 26, 1833, Adolph Kamp was born. His Jewish name was Adolph ben Ascher Ha-Kohen. One can only guess how the young widow managed to raise her three children. It is astounding that she did not re-marry, which was the usual custom at the time. Presumably the Jewish families living there helped her, which was the custom in the Jewish community. In any case, she managed to give her children all they needed to be successful in life.

Sibilla Daniels Kamp

Sibilla Kamp

The photo shows Adolphine Sibilla Daniels in her sixties, sitting stiffly upright, wearing a beautiful silk head piece and dress, and looking out of lively and clever eyes. Only her two hands appeared to be gnarled from much work.

In 1829, the year Alexander was born, Korschenbroich became autonomous and no longer part of the Gladbach Jewish community. A synagogue was built. By 1860 Alexander and Adolph wanted to leave Korschenbroich after their sister Sophia married Philipp Schwarz, whose family owned a large cattle business in Korschenbroich. This marriage produced more than eight children who moved as far away as Amstelveen/Holland. Sophia died April 1918 aged 86, considered very old in those days.

The 1853 census of the Jewish community mentioned for the first time Alexander Kamp, surprisingly as a silk weaver. This trade probably had no prospects of a future and soon he was listed at an animal pelt merchant in Korschenbroich.In 1861 he was listed as a resident of Crefeld. Two years later his brother Adolph also was listed as an animal pelts merchant in Crefeld. At this time the proud silk weavers' trade became obsolete when their equipment was mechanized. This probably caused Alexander Kamp to change trades to find his luck in another trade. The brothers Kamp obviously saw this new development as another chance. The growing town did not need any more silk weavers but it needed animal pelts to manufacture leather goods. And the brothers Kamp could deliver what the town needed. So they became prosperous.

The brothers Kamp in Crefeld

Alexander Kamp's first house in Crefeld was outside the four walls, in a small suburb for newcomers. Shortly before his move to Crefeld Alexander Kamp married Johanna Hausmann on July 3, 1859. Johanna worked as a maid in Cologne, where the wedding took place. She was two years older than Alexander. One year later Josephine was born on July 23, 1860, but believe she had a short life. One year later Julie on August 23, 1861, and two years later Eva on April 2, 1863. Although they expected yet another girl, Adolf was born April 2, 1865 and two years later Michael on February 21, 1867. He and Adolf would eventually take over the business. Johanna Hausmann Kamp died in 1868, only 40 years old. Probably her death was due to her sixth pregnancy and neither she nor the baby survived.

In 1868 Alexander's younger brother Adolph, aged 33, married Josephina Strauss. Both Alexander and his brother Adolph had children within one year: Alexander's son Albert Kamp on January 8, 1870 and Adolph's daughter Bertha on December 10, 1870. Then the family's misfortune was repeated on October 12, 1871, when Adolph Kamp died totally unexpectedly while on a business trip to Venlo. Again his wife was pregnant and his daughter was named Adolphine Sybilla in honor of her father and grandmother who had suffered the same fate. Sadly, Adolphina Sybilla only lived two years and died on August 24, 1873, two years after her father.

The book shows a photo of Ostwall and the brother Kamps business in the Peter street next to the Ostwall. Other photos include the synagogue, the grave of Johanna HAUSMANN KAMP wife of Alexander, and the grave of Adolph KAMP in Venlo.

Not much is known what became of Adolph Kamp's family. His daughter Bertha Kamp married and in January 1911 was buried in Krefeld in the old Jewish cemetery in the name of Bertha Lindheim. Her husband, Gustav Lindheim born December 25, 1869, later worked for the brothers Kamp. Together with his sister Ida, born November 11, 1873, they were deported from Krefeld to Theresienstadt on July 25, 1942. Previously his daughter Alice, born August 28, 1899, had been sent to Izbica. Only Werner Lindheim, born March 17, 1909, seems to have survived and emigrated to Massachusetts, after which all traces of him were lost. [3]

Alexander now worked the business by himself, although retaining the name "Bros. Kamp" to honor his brother's memory. After his first wife's death in 1868 he married his first wife's younger sister Hanna Hausmann in 1869. The book shows the marriage license of Alexander Kamp and Hanna Hausmann witnessed by Isaac Kaufmann. Due to his new marriage Alexander now could give all his energy to the development of his businesses because he was not the type of person who is satisfied with the status quo and so he became a buyer for the Tannery Paschmann in Moers. He also did well with investing money and expanded his animal skin business to include spices. At the time skins were used to make sausages, and sausages were the mainstay of ordinary people. And so the family Kamp assimilated in Crefeld, they were first of all good Germans, conservative and true to the Kaiser. Because many of the butchers were Jewish, the Bros Kamp network grew. Transportation and merchandising became more sophisticated, and thus it was expected that the business would continue to flourish into the next generation.

The Kamp kids from Crefeld

After the wedding with Hanna Hausmann in 1869, the four children from the first marriage - Julie, Eva, Adolf and Michael, found a new mother. Hanna Hausman was to have six more chidren - all sons. As newcomers to the established family they had to make their own way in life and later contributed greatly to the expansion of the Bros. Kamp business.

First, on March 7, 1870, Albert Kamp was born, and one year later Rudolph Kamp on June 25, 1871. It is not clear why Rudolph died two years later. His grave stone reads: "Refael, a cuddlesome child, beloved and pleasing". Two years later, on February 19, 1873, the third son Isaak Kamp was born. Not much is known of Isaak. He did not marry and died at the age of 26. The circumstances of his death are not known, except that he died at 7 o'clock in the evening on September 1, 1899. One year after Isaak's birth, on May 25, 1874, Hanna's fourth son Siegmund Kamp was born. After a three-year interval, (possibly there were unrecorded miscarriages during that time) Felix Kamp was born on January 5, 1877, and he died in September of that year. The death rate of her children caused an enormous sorrow for Hanna. She not only had to deal with the death of her children, she also had to care and raise her living children as well as those of her sister Johanna. It all seems like an unbelievable burden to us now. The last of her six children was Leo Kamp, born on January 11, 1878.

All together Alexander had eleven children:five with his first wife Johanna, then six with her sister Hanna. As well as the first child, Josephine, two of Hanna's children, Rudolf and Felix, also died as small children. So now there was a new generation - the so-called Kamp-Kids of Crefeld. They practiced Judaism, on Shabbat, visited the synagogue, and also supported the Jewish primary school in Crefeld which was built in 1840. People met and knew each other, and in general had a good life. Crefeld was changing. A center strip made the Ostwall into a divided street with stores that were not to be found in Duesseldorf. Actually people who could afford it drove to Crefeld to shop. There were silk goods, umbrellas, ties, and gloves and imported lace from Brussels. The Bros. Kamp business model also adjusted to the time due to an 1868 Prussian law that dealt with the building of stockyards. This facilitated the business because they no longer had to import the animals from the countryside.

Because there were so many children, early on it became clear that the business could not support so many families. First of all it was expected that the daughters Julie and Eva would marry. Julie married Max Davids, from Huels, who was two years younger than she, on August 5, 1863. Max Davids was a handsome man, from a Jewish family of animal traders in Huels.(about 10 miles north of Crefeld). He was known for always wearing his gold pocket watch. This match was a good business connection for the Bros. Kamp. Soon after her sister Eva married Isaak Cohen from Bergheim, born March 19, 1859, who was in business in Duesseldorf.

Adolf and Michael Kamp, the two sons of Johanna Hausmann, stayed in Crefeld and joined the Bros. Kamp business, and eventually took over. As the oldest son, Adolf Kamp early on joined his father's business. He married, at some point in the 1890s, Henriette Kaufmann from St. Toenis, daughter of Abraham Kaufmann and Sara Meyer Kaufmann.Abraham Kaufmann was a butcher and together with his siblings had built a successful business in St. Toenis. Most certainly the family Kaufmann and the Kamps had known each other for a long time, even though the Jewish community of St. Toenis, only three miles from Crefeld, wanted to remain very independent and have no ties to Crefeld. Especially they wanted to remain Orthodox. After many struggles for their independence, in September 1907 they built a new synagogue. Probably the family Kamp felt a duty to the conservative beliefs of Judaism, supporting the Jewish community in Crefeld. Abraham Kaufmann and his wife Sarah of St. Toenis had eight children, of whom Henriette was the youngest. Her sister Johanna married Moritz Lamberts from St. Hubert near Kempen, who came from a long established Jewish family with 13 children. The connection with Henriette Kaufman was a good business connection for Adolf Kamp.

Adolf and Henrietta had two children - Fritz and Else. In an 1893 roster, Adolf was known as a general trader for the Bros. Kamp. His younger brother, Michael Kamp, continued to be designated as an animal skin trader. He married Amanda Reiss, born September 18, 1877, in Crefeld. Amanda's parents were Matthias Reiss and Berta Michels. They also had another daughter. Presumably the lawyer Samuel (Sally) Reiss, who has his office at Ostwall 112, was a brother or cousin. He was born in Krefeld in 1879 and died in 1937 in Nassau/Lahn. Sally Reiss was married to Emilie Belmont, born June 22, 1881, in Alzey. Her younger sister, Ella Belmont, later married Siegmund Kamp. It was all one family and everyone knew each other. These connections were its own network and greatly helped the further expansion of the Bros. Kamp. Emilie Belmont is buried in the new Jewish cemetery in Krefeld. She died on May 6, 1912, aged 30. Consequently Sally Reis married again to Anna Loeser. With her he had a son Fritz, who in May 1938 emigrated to Milan.

The Bros Kamp continued to prosper. A third business connection came through Adolf Kamp with his brother-in-law Isaac Cohen from Duesseldorf. For their business they needed not only the animal skins for the sausages, but also Butcher equipment such as meat cutting machines. In 1881 Isaac Cohen, together with his cousin Isidor Cohen, created the firm I & I Cohen in Duesseldorf. This complemented the Bros. Kamp business. Later, after the stockyards were built in Duesseldorf, I & I Cohen moved to Rather Street 58, directly opposite the stockyards. This was instrumental in the business expansion making this the most important business of its kind. Possibly the brothers Kamp participated in the financing of this business. In any case, both businesses were very successful. So it was not surprising that Bros. Kamp were named the general representative of the firm Berkel, who manufactured scales. Because many butchers were Jewish, the news spread quickly and orders came quickly, in spite of the high costs. It is notable that the successful idea of the Duesseldorf business to locate adjacent to the stockyards was copied 20 years later by the Essen branch of the Bros. Kamp. Soon Bros. Kamp had the biggest market share of the business in the Rhineland, the Lower Rhine region, and Westfalen.

Isaak Cohen and his wife Eva were soon recognized as important citizens of Duesseldorf, which at that time was still in the shadow of the extravagant Crefeld. (Apparently the cousin Isidor Cohen was bought out by Isaac Cohen so that by the year 1900 Isaac Cohen was the sole owner of I & I Cohen). The so-called K-Tram was built in 1898 for the sole purpose of allowing Duesseldorfers the ability to go shopping in Crefeld. It was the first inter-city electric train in Europe. Crefeld offered textiles to the international market which could not be found anywhere else, and Crefeld was dubbed the little "Paris on the Rhine". People loved to walk along the Ostwall and visit one of the many cafes.

Over time Julie, Eva, Adolf and Michael Kamp had become settled in their lives, and now the later generation of the Kamp Kids, the four children of Hanna Hausmann - Albert, Isaak, Siegmund and Leo - needed to find their role in life. Isaak died at age 26 and traces of him are lost. His brother Michael continued in the animal skin trade although modernized machinery lessened the demand for those. Eventually the business emphasis of the Bros. Kamp had to change, so it is not surprising that, in 1901, Albert Kamp founded his own branch of the business in Essen. All four brothers - Adolf, Michael, Albert and Leo Kamp participated in the business. Essen was an enticing location because a new stockyard had been built there. There was extensive trade throughout the Ruhr area, with a rapidly growing population. Trade was expanding.

In Crefeld Adolf and Michael followed the superior blueprint of I & I Cohen in Duesseldorf to expand the branch in the Ruhr area. Due to the rapid growth of the business, two years later a branch was opened in Dortmund, headed by Albert Schwartz. Albert Schwartz was the son of Adolph Schwartz, and thus the grandson of Sophia Kamp Schwartz from Korschenbroich. Sophia was the older sister of Alexander and Adolph Kamp. Albert Schwartz was married to Hedwig Wihl from Crefeld. Apparently he learned the business from the Bros Kamp and, together with his wife, settled in the new branch in Dortmund. Albert and Hedwig had two children - Herta and Heinz. Later, in her second marriage, Herta married Paul Kamp, Michael Kamp's son. Albert Schwarz and his wife were arrested in 1938 and sent to Sachsenhausen, and from there they emigrated to Holland, but then were arrested again and died in Auschwitz in 1943. Heinz escaped from the Nazis and it is believed that he fought against Germany with a Jewish brigade in Egypt.

Albert Kamp married Caroline Kann from Muelheim in the Ruhr area and thus he gained entrance to the industry in the Ruhr area. At the time this was mostly a coal and steel industry. The area was growing quickly with migrants who were looking for a better future working in the mines or at Thyssen and Krupp. But then there were the sausages, which were the mainstay of the working people. And to make the sausages fresh animal skins were needed, which could only be had from the Bros. Kamp in Essen. This expansion into the Ruhr area was helped by bankers who were cousins of Caroline Kann.

Several years later Leo Kamp, having spent several months in Liverpool, followed his brother to Essen. Leo emphasized the importance of a good international education and good command of the English language. He had spent time in Zuerich where he met his future wife Betty Pollag, who was born in Switzerland. Betty's brother Sigmund Albert Pollag was a doctor in Zuerich and later became a collector of fine art. The Pollag family was related to the Guggenheims from Frankfurt. Betty was reluctant to move to the coal and steel region, but art did exist in Essen. In 1906 ground was broken for a museum which became world-renown. By 1921 it was avant-garde with paintings by Cezanne, Gauguin, van Gogh and Matisse and others. Later the Nazis declared the collection of more than 1,400 to be degenerate and disposed of it.

No doubt Betty's joining the Kamp family brought new perspectives to the family and the business. While Leo's brother Albert dealt with the business side of Bros Kamp. Leo was more drawn to the cultural connections. Soon both Albert and Leo moved to the elegant districts in the city's south, a district that is still exclusive. Albert and Leo Kamp quickly learned what Isaak Cohen had achieved in Duesseldorf. They moved the business to a large area near the stockyards. After their small installation in Crefeld they now had a much larger space. Also along with it they opened their own business with butcher supplies, thus enabling them to equip meat processing factories. Once again the Kamps were able to follow the correct path to the future as the expansion of the Ruhr area progressed, just as Alexander Kamp did years ago by the modernization with machinery of the textile industry. No doubt the Bros Kamp were successfully involved in an international business.

Only Siegmund Kamp, their brother in Crefeld, had no interest in animal skins, nor was he willing to leave beautiful Crefeld for the smoky Ruhr area. He was married to Ella Belmont, born November 14, 1884, in Alzey, an elite family whose wine and champagne business was the biggest of its kind in Germany. They were also connected, through marriage, with the Rothschild family. At that time elite families drank wine and champagne. Beer was frowned upon. Ella Belmont's sister Emilie was married to the lawyer Sally Reiss, a cousin or brother of Amanda Reiss Kamp. During a visit to Crefeld, Ella met Siegmund Kamp, a man of the world, often with a cigar between his lips, smiling and ready for action. Ella loved the modern city of Crefeld and the couple had no wish to wash animal skins or sell butcher equipment, nor to move to another town. Together with a neighbor, Eduard Seligmann, Siegmund Kamp founded a tie factory with the name Seligmann & Kamp. The importance of a genuine Crefeld silk tie should not be undervalued. It was a status symbol for gentlemen, representing success. The ties were valued nationwide. The Crefeld silk tie became an internationally desired item. Note: Ella Belmont was the only one of the Kamp family who returned to Krefeld after the war and lived there with her daughter. She died in 1971 in an old age home and is buried in the new Jewish cemetery.

And so the second Kamp generation flourished. Alexander and his brother Adolf had established the business, which successfully lasted until 1940 due to continuous new ideas and innovations. Trade had expanded to Holland, Belgium and Switzerland. They were Germans living as Jews in the tolerant city of Crefeld. Nobody cared that, on Shabbat, they went to the synagogue. And why should they? Every member of the family was working for the welfare of the town.

The Second generation Kamp

Alexander KAMP died at the age of 73 on April 30, 1901, in Crefeld. He had laid the ground work for the family business. As head of the business in 1903 Adolf Kamp moved into a villa on the Deutschen Ring, a proper setting for his family. His pride in this is obvious in every photo. Note: In 1943 the house was totally destroyed by bombs and today a quite ordinary apartment house is built in its place. In May 1903 Michael Kamp moved into the exclusive area of the Viktoria Street, one of the best streets in the town. In the back of the house, until it was destroyed during the war, lived Mathilde Gruenewald, who was the president of the Catholic Women's Club. This indicates the tolerant attitudes of the times. Many known Jews lived in the neighborhood. Dr. Leo Alexander owned a silk factory together with his sister Hilde Goldschmidt. Next to Siegmund Kamp lived Emanuel Seligmann with his family, who helped in the formation of the Kamp tie manufacture. It appears he had the manufacturing knowledge while Siegmund took care of the financing and general business oversight. It seems that later Emanuel Seligmann was bought out because the tie factory only had the Kamp name. He was married to Klara Cohen and they had four children.

Julie Kamp, the oldest sister lived with her husband Max Davids in Huels, a few kilometers north of Crefeld. Max Davids belonged to an old established dynasty of animal traders in Huels and probably was well off financially. His brother Emil Davids married Julie Dannebaum, so at this time there were two women in Huels with the name Julie Davids. At that time there were approximately 50 Jewish inhabitants in Huels with their own synagogue. Max was two years younger than Julie, they were a good-looking pair, had four daughters and one son.

In the meantime her sister Eva Kamp had moved to Duesseldorf with Isaak Cohen. They had three sons and lived in a stately house in Duesseldorf, Graf-Recke Street 49. Eva and Isaak lived on the Ratherstrasse 56, in a big apartment above the store. After the store was taken away in 1939 they did move in with us on the Graf-Recke Street 49. The house had an extensive library as well as imposing furnishings, carpets, furniture, books, valuable china and glassware. Also paintings and sculptures. It was a well-run household which was the sign of a successful businessman's family. Naturally it was a kosher household, with servants.

Albert Kamp moved to Essen with the newly opened branch and extension of the Bros. Kamp. He and Caroline Kann had two children: Alexander and Ilse. His brother Leo Kamp was also co-owner of the Bros. Kamp in Essen. With Betty Pollag he had two sons: Ewald and Rudy. Both Albert and Leo's houses were in the exclusive south part of Essen, and both houses survived the second war. Following the establishment of I & I Cohen in Duesseldorf the Bros Kamp business in Essen was naturally diminished although the business in Crefeld continued to do well. Besides their connections in business, the families often got together, mostly in Crefeld but also elsewhere. Note: Margot Cohen Goldberg remembers family gatherings at her Duesseldorf home in the 1930s.

The B'nai B'rith lodge in Crefeld was founded in 1904. Its members were the well-to-do Jews living in Krefeld. President was Dr. Kurt Alexander, a well-known attorney who also was the Secretary for the Central Society of German Jews. He was a leader in the Jewish community and later worked for the reparation of Jewish property. On November 9, 1938, he was sent to Dachau, and then he emigrated to England and then to Amarillo, USA, where he became an important member of the Jewish community. The Central Society of German Jews was founded in 1893 for active Jewish citizens, to strengthen their obligations as German citizens, supporting the Kaiser. The Kamps were committed to this with confidence in the existing conditions, their love of order, and wishing to have their business make a lasting contribution to the Country. Naturally they were also members of B'nai B'rith, which emphasized sociability and acceptance of all, not just of Jews, and without emphasis on money, which alone was not enough to be accepted.

Crefeld continued to grow. In 1906 the department store Tietz opened, an event which made waves well beyond Crefeld, since such a department store was not known until then. Music played all day in the store, a café was on the roof, and customers were allowed to exchange merchandise. Then another department store, the Bros. Kaufmann, opened in a new modern glass building. Many businesses in the town center were owned by Jews, including the first cinema. The silk trade was mostly owned by Jews, including Siegmund Kamp's factory. Of the seven banks in Crefeld, one was owned by Jews: J. Franck & Co. Jews also became prominent in medicine, and took part in all aspects of the city. The city was expanding with new construction, including beautiful large homes and the opening of the Kaiser Wilhelm Museum in 1897. While the modernization benefited many, and Crefeld became internationally known as a progressive city, the ones to suffer were the once proud silk weavers who could no longer find work.

Emancipation and Expansion

In the meantime the Kamp-Kids had been well established at their various locations. The main location in Crefeld had branches or independent businesses in Duesseldorf and Essen. Note: Margot Cohen Goldberg does not believe I & I Cohen was part of the Kamp's business. Also, she doesnot believe the Kamps had a business in. Crefeld remained the center of the Kamp's operation. For the first time Jews were called to the front at the outbreak of WW I. This meant that the Jews were now recognized at full citizens so they gladly accepted the challenge.

Julie Kamp Davids and Max Davids from Huels had five children, so besides Max also his son Walter Davids (born October 28, 1893) took part in the war. Besides Walter there were four daughters: Johanna (born August 4, 1892), Martha (born October 28, 1893), Paula (born October 22, 1895) and Louise (born August 11, 1897).

Eva Kamp Cohen and Isaac Cohen in Duesseldorf had three sons, all of whom participated in the war. The oldest son Arthur (born October 13, 1888) later took over the management of the I & I business. His younger brother Adolf Cohen (born May 26, 1892), was killed in the war in August 1918. Eugen Cohen (born April 26, 1895) was injured in the war and because of that could not participate in the business. Note: more details can be researched.

In Crefeld Adolf Kamp, as a patriotic German, also went to war, and his son Fritz Kamp (born July 8, 1895) was drafted at the age of 19. His job was to take care of military uniform replacements. When he saw the poor quality, he made plans for replacements after the war. The lost war and the recession and inflation that followed meant an end to those plans. People were fortunate just to survive.

Michael Kamp had two sons: Paul Kamp (born June 15, 1896) and Matthias Kamp (born December 16, 1899). Both sons were not called up and it is not known if Michael himself was in the war.

Siegmund Kamp, who owned the tie factory, and Ella Belmont Kamp had two children: Gertrude Hanna Kamp (born September 13, 1905) and Emil Alexander (born April 13, 1907).

In Essen Albert Kamp was married to Caroline Kann (born July 14, 1876) from Muehlheim/Ruhr had two children: A daughter Ilse Kamp (born September 14, 1899) and Alexander Kamp (born February 13, 1902) who moved to Cologne in 1930 and openly refused to take over his father's businesses. Note: Caroline Kann's brother Leopold Kann emigrated to the USA. Caroline Kann died September 22, 1937. Some accounts list a second wife for Albert Kamp named Amanda, but her existence is not clear.

Albert's brother Leo Kamp and Betty Pollag (born July 2, 1884) had two children: Rudolph (Rudy) Kamp (born November 16, 1910) and Ewald Kamp (born May 21, 1914). Uncertain times followed for Crefeld.

The new Democracy was attacked from all sides with the call for the Kaiser to return. A new lifestyle developed -" the Roaring Twenties", with amusements and dance parties readily available. This life style was directly opposite to the old order and to the beliefs of the correct Prussian family of Adolf Kamp. Adolf Kamp had, besides his son Fritz Kamp, also a daughter Else Kamp (born June 5, 1899). She found her true calling at this time and became a bad girl, a new kind of women who, even aware of the traditional behavior expected, made their own rules. Their skirts and their hair was short, they wore heavy make-up, drank and smoked, and danced with men in the night clubs. Behavior that only a few years ago had been unthinkable. Sadly this is how Else enjoyed the enticements of the time. She decided that, as a woman she was her own person and did not need to be a man's appendage. Even in tolerant Crefeld, this behavior was frowned upon. Else Kamp was known to have only a short marriage - one week. Her bridegroom was Max Moritz Gutenstein(he later emigrated to Canada and died in Montreal in 1976). Else Kamp stayed in Germany, later it is possible she joined the Gestapo. It can be assumed that this connection, although totally corrupt morally, helped the family Kamp to flee to Holland. However, there is no record that either Fritz nor Else had any Gestapo connection (later it is mentioned that Else converted to Christianity).

There was much political unrest. In spite of this, with massive inflation and many out of work, Albert and Leo Kamp found a way to continue in business because their business was dominant in the market. Later, through various connections, Adolf and Michael in Crefeld and Albert and Leo in Essen, acquired various properties. Sigmund, the tie manufacturer, had no part in this. Note: the book lists more information on the properties. Inflation was so massive that for one million marks one could buy a loaf of bread today, but probably no longer tomorrow. Even though the Bros Kamp business continued, there were problems for the Kamp families. Plans to expand in Crefeld were put on hold. Whenever possible they met together to discuss the latest developments. No one knew what the future held, millions were out of work without any hope for the future. Although there was support for the conservative Jewish population, there were signs that times were changing, and growing anti-Semitism was noted. When the stock market collapsed in 1929 the department store Tietz was looted due to anti-Semitism. The Jewish department stores had long been a thorn in the sides of many because they were able to sell their merchandise cheaper. People were looking for someone to blame for the hard times and the Jews, who were still living well, were the obvious ones to blame.

Recognizing the changing times, in 1926 Michael Kamp's son Matthias left Krefeld to find his future in Arnheim, Holland, where he opened a clothing store, remaining in the textile business. In 1929 he married Ida Soberski and in 1930 took on Dutch citizenship. They had two children: Rita (born June 17, 1932) and Edward/Eddy (born February 7, 1935)

Albert Kamp, was a conservative German who believed in the Kaiser. These events and the Belgian occupation of the area were life-changing for him. His generation was patriotic to Germany and it was unthinkable for them that things could be different, especially not in Krefeld. Paul Kamp, Michael's son and his cousin Fritz were now managing the Bros. Kamp business in Krefeld(Paul had married Helene Wallerstein, who was the daughter of the medical officer Leopold Wallerstein). Because the Belgian occupation had the Rhine area cut off, they aimed their trade toward Holland and Belgium. They continued this even when the occupation ended.In spite of the hard times, the Bros Kamp continued to be prominent in Krefeld.

Following a press conference by the president of the police, this was reported as having been said: "For a long time now the police has noted a change of mood against the Jewish community and against individual persons who are active in the Jewish community. Their houses have been damaged and their front doors have been sullied in the worst way and even destroyed." Synagogue publications had been damaged and bicyclist had been pulled from their bicycles by right-wingers. Groups of the right-wing "Stahlhelms" (Steel helmets) roamed the city and the police had a difficult time to end these actions. Already in 1925 the first group of National Socialists was founded. Although at first it was only regarded as a small group, in 1928 the NSDAP opened a business office as a front for the Stahlhelm group. The Bros. Kamp were also affected by these changed circumstances. In 1919 Adolf and Leo Kamp joined the Open Trade Association which had been founded in 1903. The Association was closed in 1929 because the Association was then at high risk.

Alexander Kamp, Albert's son, moved to the liberal city Cologne in 1930, changing addresses frequently. Apparently he moved in the artistic and avant-garde circles. In the same year Leo's son Rudy, at age 20, graduated from the Bredeneyer Gymnasium (high school) in Essen. Because he was denied a further education, he moved to Paris and later emigrated to Chicago. The Jewish students in the Realgymnasium on the Moltke Place in Krefeld also experienced changes. They were exposed to increasing animosity.

In February 1931 Sigmund Kamp, the tie manufacturer and the economy's 'wonder child' died at the age of only 56 years. His son Emil Alexander, age 22, now had to take over the business and he barely managed this in the turbulent times. At the same time social conditions in Krefeld changed drastically. More than 25% were out of work. Neediness was widespread. The city found it necessary to instigate a capital tax. This amounted to 25% of all possessions and was intended to stop the migration. The deadline was retroactive to March 31, 1929, so even those who had already left had to pay this. However, Matthias Kamp was not affected. He had become a Dutch citizen in 1930.

A girl from Cologne comes to Krefeld

As an early leader of the business community, Fritz Kamp and his cousin Paul accepted the responsibility to lead the next generation. What Fritz needed was a wife so he could start his own family. He found her when he met Inge Meyer from Cologne. Jewish marriage customs for marriage were well established although Fritz, as business leader, barely had the time for an extensive honeymoon. Coincidentally Inge Meyer was the granddaughter of Daniel Meyer (b 1839, died 1882) who had an animal skin business in Duelken, near Gladbach, which the Bros. Kamp took over in 1883.

Inge's youngest brother was Ludwig Meyer (b November 1, 1874), father of Inge and Rita Meyer. After failing with the manufacture of textiles made from rubber, he went to Cologne with a new idea. It is probable that Ludwig was Leonhard Tietz,'s cousin, who was the founder of the Jewish department store Tietz. As business owners they were in contact and thus Leonhard Tietz opened another store on property belonging to Ludwig Meyer. It was a smaller store and from the beginning was a huge success. There were covered walkways, a café where music was played. It was noted that three weeks after opening the store had sold out. (Two years later, in 1893, the headquarters of the business moved from Elberfeld to Cologne ("Tietz" became a generic term for a modern department store). Leonhard Tietz died in November 1914.

Ludwig Meyer returned to Cologne in 1910 and with his friend Ludwig Moses (b November 28, 1875, in Cologne) opened a clothing manufacturing business. Ludwig Moses was bought out in 1913 and founded a shoe store in Duisburg (in October 1941 he was deported to Litzmannstadt, where he died). At this time in 1913 Leonard Tietz opened his legendary department store Tietz, four stories high, with sought after merchandise and elegant interiors, including the first escalator in Germany. The new business was easily recognizable, with Art Deco pictures and advertising. One department sold men's and boy's hats, which at that time were more popular than they are today. In 1911 Ludwig Meyer married Margarete Kirchheimer, born 1889 in Westphalia. Margarete was ready to leave her five sisters and move to Cologne after the usual honeymoon in Venice, the city of lovers, where they fed the doves in the marketplace. Daughter Inge was born in 1911 and Rita four years later.

Businesses were doing well but soon all able-bodied men were drafted, including, and for the first time, all Jews, so they could serve the Kaiser, the people, and the fatherland. Doubtlessly many of the Jewish citizens considered this an honor to be considered as having arrived in the midst of society. After the war, despite the difficult times, the businesses of Ludwig Meyer and Leonhard Tietz flourished. Using modern marketing methods, such as giving out stamps which could be used for future purchasing, shopping became an adventure and the talk of the town. Totally unexpected Ludwig Meyer died from a heart attack in September 1926 at the age of 52. (It was the second day of Rosh Hashana and he was in a taxi returning from the synagogue). His daughter Inge was 15 years old. Four years later, on March 21, 1930, Margarete Kirchheimer was married again to Adolf Meyer, a cousin of her late husband. Adolf came from Gladbach and he was the sales director of the local Textile Association. (This included rubber textile manufacture, such as suspenders, which Ludwig Meyer had originally introduced.) After the wedding Ludwig Meyer's department store was leased to the Tietz Company.

Daughter Inge was sent to boarding school in Lausanne when she was 16, because it was usual in the Jewish community that children are exposed to higher education and to learn other languages. At age 21, in March 1932, Inge married Fritz Kamp. Fritz was 37 years old. Quite some time ago he had assumed from his father Adolf the running of the businesses of the Bros Kamp in Krefeld. He was an established business man. Inge was young and attractive, raised in the "Roaring Twenties:", and it took her a while to settle into her new role as the wife of a business owner of an old established business, and into her new life with her conservative orthodox mother-in-law from St. Toenis. But Fritz Kamp also knew how to enjoy life and how to celebrate holidays, both in Cologne and in Krefeld. Apparently once he was the "Carnival Prince" in Krefeld. Inge never lost her connection to her mother and to Cologne. She remained a true "Cologne Girl", a fun girl.

Customs of the Times

Following the National Socialist take-over on January 30, 1933, persecution and suppression of Jewish citizens followed. At first these threats were not taken seriously. Chief Rabbi Dr. Arthur Bluhm, suggested to simply cross the street when meeting party members. However, party influence was escalating. Several days later in February, there was an attack on the synagogue in Peter Street, and the valuable windows by Thorn Prikker were destroyed. The Catholic city leader Schwanborn assured the chief Rabbi Dr. Bluhm that he was sure that all decent citizens would condemn this outrage. For a long time nobody realized that the systematic persecution, in fact the destruction, of the Jewish citizens of Krefeld had begun. In February the party officials made the first arrests. The concentration camp Dachau was already opened in April 1933 and at first was filled with communist party members. Dachau became the blueprint for all other KZs (KZ is a concentration camp). The camp leader was named Bongartz, a former neighbor of a Jewish household. When later his wife realized what he was doing she killed herself and their four children, and he married again in Dachau.

Shortly after the take-over, an order was issued supposedly for the protection of people and the state, allowing at any time that houses could be searched and that property could be impounded. This created a climate of fear that arbitrarily the democratic basic rights could be changed. When at the Krefeld city-wide election in March 1933 the National Socialists did not receive the majority vote, the next day all Communists were arrested. Since the beginning of March the swastika flag was flying from the Krefeld City Hall. These developments reached an important climax when, on March 23, 1933, the authorities, following Hitler's orders, were allowed to make new laws for the country without any vote or observance of constitutional laws. In fact, democratic principles were declared to be bankrupt. Many Jews felt that this was the sign for them to leave Germany. At this time Holland welcomed the German immigrants because they brought profitable businesses with them which strengthened the country's economy. But after 1934 Germans could no longer own businesses in Holland.

The Krefeld Jewish community also reacted to the growing hostile environment. It was difficult to believe that they would be ostracized or defamed. Especially the older Jews who could look back on the city's long history of tolerance.At this time the Nazis re-named streets in Krefeld, Essen, and other cities. Streets were re-named Adolf Hitler Street and other names in keeping with the Nazi doctrine. In short, with the take-over, open hatred of Jews was now the norm. A national survey declared that the Jews were responsible for all misfortunes and hardships, and that those who bought from Jewish businesses betrayed the country. The old order was abandoned and only the "elite" party members were acceptable. There was no longer a place for Jews and for those who disagreed with this new regime. This overt antisemitism had various reaction among the Jewish population. Adolf Kamp was often overheard saying "Everywhere, but not in Krefeld…" As a virtuous Prussian and a decorated participant in the First World War, he believed that returning to the peaceful times was guaranteed. But that did not happen. Already in March the city of Krefeld was ordered to stop doing business with Jewish establishments. At the same time, Jewish city officials were to be dismissed, although this did not actually happen in Krefeld, who only suspended them for four days.

After the call to boycott the situation worsened.Signs "Don't Buy From Jews" were posted on store fronts and uniformed men confronted customers as they entered. For Krefelders it remained unbelievable that they could no longer shop in their favorite stores. (Soon followed the "arization" of the Jewish department stores when in 1933 the Jewish board members were pushed out and in 1934 the department store Tietz continued on without any Jewish participation. This happened sooner or later to all Jewish businesses.) In Essen Herman Goering declared that he rejected that the police should be present to protect Jewish businesses, and so the Jewish stores were delivered to the brown-shirted troops. They could no longer hope for police help.

Already in May 1933 Leo Kamp's son Ewald moved from Essen to Krefeld, and later moved to Paris. On February 17, 1934, his brother Rudy Kamp followed him from Essen where he had been denied a further education. Eventually both moved to Chicago. Leo and his wife Betty were left home alone in Essen. There was open discrimination against Jews. For the first time there was open discrimination against Otto Berets, who had been thrown out of his delicatessen stand in the Krefeld market place. He thought he was safe because of his Dutch nationality, but in the end that did not matter. He was under observance from the beginning and later even denounced when "witnesses" stepped up falsely accusing seduction and shame by Jews. "Fake News" existed widely. After the first wave of emigration in 1933, a new law called for the loss of citizenship for those who left, and the confiscation of their property. The emigration tax dramatically increased. After August 1933 German doctors were no longer allowed to practice together with German colleagues, and soon after "Race Study" became a new subject in schools.

The Jews in Germany reacted to these massive events by founding a national organization of German Jews in Berlin. Attorney Kurt Alexander from Krefeld was involved in this, and he later founded the cultural organization of German Jews in Krefeld. Leo Baeck, who until 1912 was the Rabbi in Duesseldorf, was named as the president of the national organization. His successor in Duesseldorf was Rabbi Max Eschelbacher who was totally familiar with the families Cohen and Kamp. Rabbi Eschelbacher was able to emigrate to England in 1939. A photograph from the golden wedding anniversary of Isaac Cohen and Eva Kamp in 1938, featured on this website, shows Max Eschelbacher and many of the Kamps. It is the last photograph of the families Cohen and Kamp that was made in Germany.

In Huels, too, there had been changes. Just a year previously Max Davids, who had been a well-regarded animal trader, together with Prince Oscar of Prussia and other significant people, participated in the foundation celebration of the Garden club in Huels. It was a special honor for him and a picture shows him standing proudly next to the Prince. In Huels he was known for his beautiful gold watch which he always wore on a chain.Suddenly he no longer belonged, only because he was Jewish. In the meantime his son Walter had assumed the running of the business. Of his four daughters only Paula was unmarried and therefore lived in her parents' house in Huels. Johanna Davids was married to Hugo Loewenstein from Bocholt. Martha Davids, who during the First World War worked as nurse in the Huels hospital, married Hermann Mannsbach with whom she moved to Beverungen. Louise Davids stayed in Krefeld and married Josef Mohr, a non-Jew, which was very unusual at that time. Most probably she did this over the objections of her parents.

In February 1939 Max Davids was forced to surrender his gold watch, along with all jewelry, to pawnshops. All Jews were forced to surrender all valuables to pawnshops. Exempt were their own wedding rings, silver watches, and two sets of cutlery per person, and also precious metal dental work. On July 24, 1942, Max Davids was deported to Theresienstadt and was murdered there on February 23, 1943. The train first went to the Duesseldorf stockyards, where the Cohens had their business. After a journey of 11 hours they finally arrived in Theresienstadt, where most of the old people died under inhumane conditions. On December 11, 1941, Paula Davids was deported to Riga and was murdered there in 1944. After she left her father Max was alone in Huels. Johanna Loewenstein was deported to Litzmannstadt and murdered. Their children Rudy and Ken survived. Later Rudy Loewenstein greatly contributed to the web site Martha Davids was also deported to Theresienstadt in July 1942. She survived and returned to Krefeld in 1948, then emigrated to Winnipeg. Later she followed her brother Walter to Rhodesia - now Zimbabwe - and later lived in Cape Town. She died in 1998 at almost 105 years old. In the Gestapo files there is a grotesque exchange of letters with Josef Mohr. He began by stating he divorced his wife because she was Jewish and is now concerned that he has to pay her money so she can survive since, being Jewish, she no longer has any money. The answer was that the problem has been solved because Louise Mohr, nee Davids, was to be on the transport to Theresienstadt on July 23, 1942. She was murdered in Auschwitz in 1944.

In Krefeld Inge Meyer Kamp was finaly pregnant. On February 5 she gave birth to her son Rolf in the Jewish Sanctuary in Cologne-Ehrenfeld. Her mother Margarete Kirchheimer Meyer lived in Cologne, and it was difficult for Fritz Kamp to leave his business in Krefeld in the uncertain times. In Cologne, too, all signs pointed to more difficult times. The Jewish owners of the Tietz department store were forced out while the store was taken over by the National Socialists. The name Tietz was dropped and changed to the AG Department Store. Margaret Kirchheimer (born November 7, 1890) also was concerned about her annual income of 30,000 Marks she received from the store after her husband Ludwig's death. No one could tell her if this payment would continue. The textile organization in Gladbach, where her second husband Adolf was a director, also faced arianization. In September 1934, the first owner of the Department store, (Andreas Moser, a 25% owner) emigrated to France.

So what should one do? Leave and leave everything behind - or stay? Questions one asked oneself constantly. For the Bros. Kamp in Krefeld the situation was somewhat different. Since they had expanded to international trade after the Belgian occupation, they paid significant amounts of taxes to Krefeld, where other similar businesses had to pay their taxes to Berlin. They hoped that, because of their significant and much-needed monetary contributions to the city of Krefeld and its inhabitants, the Nazis would consider their business' economical value. Thus Fritz Kamp could continue the business. His sister Else, the "Enfant terrible" of the family, went her own way and converted to Catholicism. It seemed to her to be a good idea to no longer be Jewish, so she discarded Judaism like an old dress that had never fit her. For her it was important to keep up with the times, to accept the new people in power with their impressive uniforms. It is therefore not surprising that she was constantly seen with German shepherd dogs, and later often in the company of German officers. While emigration was being seriously discussed by many, the emigration tax based on persons' net value was increased drastically affecting especially the Jewish families who owned jewelry, art, and other valuables. The new law wanted to keep these valuables in the country and encourage Jews to stay. But repressions grew, so that Jewish doctors were no longer able to practice.

Bros. Kamp also reacted to these changes. On September 25, 1934, they established a new business under F & P Kamp, with offices in the Peter street. Owners were Fritz and Paul Kamp. The business was described as a trade and export in animal skins, pelts, spices and related good. Also the manufacture of butcher needs, specifically machines and shop furnishings, and commercial scales for the industry. The business was independent of the Bros Kamp in Essen. Certainly one reason was that the fathers, Adolf and Michael, had lost touch with the reality of the times. It is worth noting that in contrast to the usual expectation of bringing money into the country, this business, by exporting to Holland and Belgium, emphasized getting the money out of the country. Who knew when and how they might need this in the future? Albert and Leo Kamp remained in Essen conducting their business. They tried to expand the business to a larger region. Leo Kamp and his family had already reached a decision. The two sons did not intend to participate in the business.

In Albert Kamp's family the daughter Ilse Kamp Stern (born May 5, 1887) had married and started a small family. Kurt Stern owned the "Elektro" business. Their son, Hans Stern, was born on October 1, 1922. Albert's son Alexander Kamp (born February 13, 1902) in Essen had moved some time ago to Cologne. He too was not interested in joining his father's business. Then apparently he experienced a momentous encounter with Gabriele Burle-Marx, one of the six children of the Brazilian family Burle-Marx. Her father was merchant Wilhelm Marx, originally from Trier (it is probable that he was related to Karl Marx, the Jewish revolutionary and founder of Communism who is from Trier). Her mother was singer and pianist Cecilia Burle from France. Both emigrated to Rio at the beginning of the century. It is not surprising that this marriage produced well-known artists. Her brother Roberto Burle-Marx later became one of the most outstanding architects in the world. In 1928/1929 he studied painting, especially cubism, in Berlin. He also was a talented singer who could entertain whole parties. In 1932 he designed the roof garden of the villa belonging to Alfredo Schwartz in Rio, which became an international landmark in garden architecture. Her brother Walter began as a musical 'wonder child', and at only twelve years old gave concerts in the USA and Europe. He was a talented composer, pianist and singer.

It is surprising that a family like this continued to look for its roots in Germany, and wanted to participate in the significant cultural developments of the time between the two world wars. They always considered Germany their home. So it happened that at some point Alexander Kamp from Essen and Gabriele Burle-Marx from Rio met in Cologne and fell in love. Perhaps they met at a concert, or in a museum, or in the Cologne synagogue. In any case, soon they were discussing Germany and the question whether to stay or emigrate. Shortly it was decided that Alexander Kamp and Gabriele would move to Rio with her family. On March 6, 1935, he left Cologne for good (in Rio Alexander became a real estate agent). This event did not greatly affect the Bros. Kamp who were occupied with other matters at this time and Alexander was considered to be a malcontent, an artist who did not fit into the traditional Prussian family. However, his decision to leave Germany eventually had many more extensive consequences than were expected at the time.

In the meantime Julie Kamp Davids died on February 4, 1935 in Huels. She was the oldest child of Alexander Kamp and Johanna Hausmann. Her husband, Max Davids, was now alone in Huels with his son Walter and daughter Paula. The other sisters had all married and moved away.

The Nurenberg Laws

Note: the book provides more details on these laws

The Jews now realized how serious and determined the Nazis were to persecute them. A Jewish community house was opened for the purpose of giving the Jewish community a safe and protected meeting facility (presumably in Krefeld but it also happened in other cities). Many were shocked to realize that suddenly being Jewish was anti-German. The meeting house was the same building formerly occupied by Siegmund Kamp's tie factory. The factory had closed after his death. His son Emil no doubt found it meaningful to use the building for this purpose. Emil Kamp left on November 12, 1938, by ship to Holland and then emigrated to New York. A meeting was held in November in the Essen synagogue to discuss this new situation. Presiding was Dr. Alfred Hirschberg. Leo Kamp had also been invited. All agreed that the prior contributions to the country by Jewish citizens were being ignored. These contributions had always been an important part of the German economy and Germany had profited from this considerably. Therefore it was frightening when the Gestapo stormed into the meeting to break up the meeting. Dr. Hirschberg was arrested and deported to Sachsenhausen But in 1940 was able to emigrate to Brazil where he died in 1971. He was charged with stating the German government was dependent on Jews. This was the first time Leo Kamp came face to face with the unbreakable determination for power by the Nazis.

In Krefeld Adolf and Fritz Kamp declared: "This can happen, but not in Krefeld!" But when in December even the Jewish war veterans lost the right to vote, most likely Adolf became skeptical while Fritz concentrated more on the running of the business.At the same time in December the Finance Office ordered to dissolve F & P Kamp because they were out of money and existed in name only. Apparently it had been noted that this firm was really founded to transfer money abroad. Somehow they managed to delay this ruling until March of the following year. This gave them enough time to take appropriate measures.In the meantime Jewish doctors were only allowed to treat Jews. This curtailment of professions pointed clearly to the economic destruction and the loss of a future for the Jews in Germany. With foresight F & P Kamp had assured that they would have some money abroad (Presumably Holland and Belgium) so they would not have to start with nothing.

In March 1936 Leo Kamp applied for export/import documents which the Gestapo granted because nothing adverse was known about him. Apparently the episode in the Essen synagogue had not affected the businesses and besides, Leo Kamp was married to Betty Pollag, a native-born Swiss citizen. In the beginning the National Socialists did not persecute Jews in other countries. Also, the 1936 Summer Olympics were to take place in Berlin and they did not want to generate bad publicity. Events in Krefeld always seemed to be different from those in Essen. Thus Julius Streicher, editor of the "Stuermer" (Nazi newspaper) finally found what the National Socialists had been hoping for. On March 17, 1936, a large tent was erected in a big square, Sprodenplatz. This was within earshot of the Jewish villas of Kurt Stern and the family Herz. The NSDAP declared, Streicher, whom they had sent from Duesseldorf to Krefeld, to be a "long-time fighter for Germans". Already in 1927 Julius Streicher had declared the "Jew to be our downfall". The fanatic anti-Semite Streicher referred to the Jews as the proponents of the Bolshevik delusions, who wanted to bring the communist chaos to Germany. More than 15,000 Krefelders (about 10% of the population) listened. Julius Streicher was received with enthusiasm and the local press gave him overwhelming support. It seemed that this speech finally had decisively ended the Krefeld tradition of tolerance. Intoxicated with patriotism they yelled" Heil Hitler" and "Down with the Jews"

For Ella Belmont Kamp, wife of the deceased Siegmund Kamp, and her daughter Gertrud this was the signal for emigration. Barely one week after Streicher's speech, she and her sister left for Bossum in Holland, hoping to find safety. Two weeks later her son Emil left for Teperitz (this location cannot be verified). Since his father's death he had been unsuccessfully trying to keep the tie factory going, and had been happy to give the building to the Jewish community for a community meeting house. His wife was Gertrud Simon. To the family it seemed that emigration was a better alternative than to remain in a city which had robbed them of the best traditions. Life for Jews in Krefeld had become limited. Friendships were dissolved and former acquaintances shunned them. So one kept a distance, not speaking, or perhaps greeting others from a distance. It was risky to be seen with Jews.

A few days later on April 7, 1936, Michael Kamp, who had carried on the tradition of the Bros. Kamp as an animal pelt and skin trader, died at the age of 69. Assumedly the present conditions and growing discrimination had adversely affected his health. Long ago he had turned over his business to his son Paul and his son Matthias has lived in Arnheim since 1926. At his funeral all got together one more time, including the widow of their driver Peter Engelberg with her two children Wilhelm and Gerta. It was held at the new Jewish cemetery in Krefeld, which was not without danger. But she felt she had to attend because the bros Kamp had supported her deceased husband. So her attendance at the funeral was the least she could do because: "The Kamps are one of us. So we just went even though it was dangerous".

In mid-June Paul Kamp moved into his deceased Uncle Siegmund Kamp's empty house. Siegmund's wife, Ella Belmont Kamp, and her daughter Gertrud, had emigrated to Holland. They returned to Krefeld in 1952 and she died there in an old age home. Son Emil and his wife also left Krefeld. Paul also took as tenants into the house two prominent Krefelders. They were the widow Dutzi, whose sons were continuing their father's Opel branch, and civil engineer Kiekartz. Soon after Paul Kamp allowed himself to be bought out of the business and so the business, including the wholesale operations, now belonged entirely to Fritz Kamp. Paul then bought into the Bros Kamp OHG which, due to its monopoly position, was still economically sound. In order to minimize the risk of arrest this had been converted to a limited partnership (KG). Adolf Kamp and his nephew Paul Kamp were the only limited partners. No one knew how much longer the business could continue in this format although the Bros Kamp KG showed a profit of 146,000 Marks in 1937. At the time the Bros Kamp was a necessary business for the people. Without animal skins, there was no sausage. In Dortmund, Essen and Krefeld, the business had more or less a monopoly. Then came I & I Cohen in Duesseldorf, which had been found with the assistance of Eva Kamp Cohen, and which significantly affected the sales in Duesseldorf and surroundings.

In the meantime, In June 1936, Krefelders celebrated the new Rhine Bridge in Uerdingen, which was named after Adolf Hitler. It took three years to build the bridge which became a showpiece for the new Krefeld rulers. Finally it was no longer necessary for detours when purchasing. Adolf Hitler was expected to come to Krefeld but this did not happen. In fact, he never set foot in Krefeld although, since 1933, he has been and remained an honored citizen. This honored citizenship was never officially recognized by Krefeld. Instead he sent Rudolf Hess as his representative, and all of Krefeld celebrated his presence at the inauguration of the bridge which had been decorated with swastika flags.

Holland and Belgium became the preferred market for Adolf and Fritz Kamp. Wholesale trade flourished. Fritz Kamp, with the founding of F & P Kamp, had created an excellent instrument to deposit money in Holland. Income from every bill was deposited mostly in Holland, leaving only a small amount for deposit in Germany. The Nazis wanted to eliminate all Jewish organization. In April 1937, the Krefeld B'nai B'rith was no longer allowed. Chief Rabbi Dr. Arthur Bluhm was arrested and brought to a hearing in the police prison. He was defended by the then Gestapo leader Riekmann. Shortly after Riekmann was transferred to Kleve. But it showed the accepted routines existing in Krefeld. Later membership in B'nai B'rith was grounds for loss of citizenship. The Gestapo also saw this as their entitlement to confiscate their properties, even those of the Jews who had already fled. For Albert Kamp's family in Essen, this ruling instigated a grotesque letter exchange with the Gestapo. Since his son Alexander had already emigrated to Rio, his membership in B'nai B'rith could not be ascertained. But in the end they simply decided he must have belonged and they confiscated all property belonging to Albert and Alexander.

Already in 1936 it was becoming difficult to ignore the ever growing flood of orders, rules, and limitations inflicted on the Jews by the Government. Between seizing control on March 24, 1933, and the progrom night of November 1938, 184 such regulations were ordered with the consequent limiting of Jewish life. Those who wished to emigrate had to pay a huge exit tax which often resulted in bankruptcy for them.

In Inge Kamp's parent's house in Cologne there also were changes. After Adolf Meyer died, Inge's mother Margarete had to recognize a new partner in Dr. Sigmund Levy. Sigmund Levy was a well-known and beloved doctor in Cologne who had been forced to give up his practice. At the end of 1935 all Jewish doctors lost their practices and were only allowed to have Jewish patients. He also had to give up his participation in a health insurance company. In the widow Margarete Meyer he found a partner who was able to a certain extent to continue the business, even during the turbulent time when the department store Tietz was converted to the Kaufhaus AG. Later it was discovered that Margarete Meyer had extensive shares of the Kaufhaus AG. But times were uncertain and nobody could depend on former promises.

In 1936 the official engagement of Dr. Sigmund Levy and Margarete Meyer was announced. Sigmund Levy planned to move into the Meyer's villa in an exclusive area of the city. Since 1933 already many NSDAP had moved there and Jewish neighbors had left. There was no contact between them, Jews were considered persona non grata. The maid in the house, although an active Nazi, was not let go. Why should she have to leave when everyone seemed to be contented? But it is certain that she reported everything and was prepared to report even the smallest incident.When Inge Kamp was again pregnant in autumn 1936, she again went to her mother in Cologne for the birth. Certainly she was in the best hands there, especially since Dr. Sigmund Levy was present. Inge Kamp gave birth on June 25, 1937, to Nikolaus Alexander Kamp, later Nico, in the Jewish hospital which had a modern natal department. She again stayed in Cologne with her mother, returning to Krefeld in August. In Cologne she participated in the stay or emigrate discussions with Sigmund Levy. He was now out of work, and without a future career.

In contrast to the Kamps who had been loyal Germans, with love for the Kaiser, Sigmund Levy had early on been in contract with Theodor Herzl discussing a Jewish state. So it was not surprising that Margarete Meyer and Sigmund Levy considered making their way to Palestine. Inge, who just given birth to a child, returned to Krefeld with her mind made up. One could no longer ignore the discrimination against Jews, nor could it be stopped. Soon Jews were unable to participate in all cultural and public functions. So it became obvious that Jews must have their own community meeting center for cultural events. The choice was obvious Siegmund Kamp's former tie factory, which included a large room formerly used for the sewing of the ties. So in September 1937, a Theater and Café were included and were operated by the couple Emil and Emilie Kober and their son Walter. Note: On Kristallnacht November 9, 1938, this Jewish community house was looted and set on fire and was totally burned to the ground, even though the party had planned to make it a center for their own Nazi party use, showing how uncoordinated the progrom night was in Krefeld. After living in a "Jewish" house in Krefeld, the Kober couple was brought to Duesseldorf in April 1942 and from there deported to Izbica where they were murdered. Their son Walter had fled to Holland in 1939, after three months was returned to Germany to prison, but with help managed to get to England and later lived in Canada.

It is assumed that, after Siegmund's death, his son Emil Alexander was not in a position to continue the tie factory. Possibly he hoped that the sale of the business would finance his emigration. Unfortunately all traces of him have vanished except it is known that he emigrated to Holland. Life in Krefeld took a dramatic turn against the Jews. On January 17, 1938, it was ordered that Jews could no longer serve on a board of any business or organization. Therefore it was no longer possible to continue any Jewish business. So it was clear to the Brothers Kamp that they could no longer continue in business, and that their only option was to sell the business in Krefeld.

In Duesseldorf too it became obvious that Arthur Cohen's business was in great danger. Yet everything was tried to save his far flung businesses which had been fantastically successful, operating near the newly build stockyards in the Derendorf section of Duesseldorf.

In Essen, where Albert Kamp had built the largest branch of the Bros. Kamp business, all signs pointed to stormy times ahead. The far-flung business, now also with a branch in Dortmund, had been a significant supplier to the population. Without these businesses it was impossible to produce sufficient sausages in Krefeld, nor in Duesseldorf, nor in the total Rhine area. Therefore it was felt that these businesses could not simply be shut down, but Jews and Jewish management had to be forced out. This process was later known as the "Arization". So it is not surprising that, following the January 17, 1938 order, the four principals of the Brothers Kamp business - Adolf, Albert, Leo, and the heirs of Michael - immediately applied for the dissolution of their business branches. They believed they would have better results if all acted independently.

In the meantime Albert and Leo were on their own. Leo's sons had emigrated long ago. Ewald was in Paris and Rudy was to follow him. Albert's son Alexander had already in 1935 moved with fiancée Gabriele Burle-Marx to Brazil. Albert's wife, Caroline Kann, had died at the age of 61. So Albert only had his daughter Ilse left, who was now married to Kurt Stern.

On April 19, 1938, sale of Jewish businesses became difficult. The sale of Jewish businesses were highly taxed, so that the original reasonable prices were reduced by the State's skimming off the top. So each sale was actually a loss since the taxes absorbed the total sales price. Therefore one had to be willing to emigrate because this loss, leaving the Jewish business owners without money or income, made a future in Germany impossible.At the Krefeld Kamp house the future of the young family had long been debated. Could they remain in Krefeld? Even if the business in Krefeld was discontinued, international trade became more and more difficult.

In 1938, one year after the birth of her grandson Nico, Margarete Meyer and Dr. Sigmund Levy decided to travel by train via Cairo to Palestine, which at the time was still under British rule. This journey, planned with great hopes for a better future, became an unexpected flight when they learned about the November 9, 1938 program. So they stayed in Palestine because they felt they were needed. Dr. Sigmund Levy, working again as a doctor, built a significant practice in the Israeli health system. But he could never quite overcome his nostalgia for Cologne, and in 1962 he and Margarete returned there, where their roots were. Both are buried in the Jewish cemetery in Cologne-Bocklemund. Margaret in the grave of Ludwig Meyer, her first husband.

The end of the Brothers Kamp business

At the end of April 1938 a new law made it finally very clear that emigration was the only option. The law of April 26, decreed that all Jewish property in the Reich belonged to the German people and that Jews therefore no longer owned any property. These laws, so contrary to the former German judicial system, were enacted quietly without fanfare before any objections could be made.) Jews were allowed to keep property worth 5,000 Marks. Everything beyond that was to be seized for later enrichment for the people. This even included property abroad, and property ready to be exported for what they hoped would be their future. Those disobeying this order faced prison, fines, or penitentiary. For the Kamps in Krefeld it quickly became obvious that this law meant the end of the long and successful Brothers Kamp business in Krefeld, and the need to immediately dispose of the business, if that was even still possible. It certainly was difficult and risky to compile a total register of all property because of the danger of inadvertently omitting something. At the same time they had to push for the quick sale of the business. It was also pretty certain that some of the Kamp's property abroad would not be touched because they had no intention of listing it. So it became a balancing act to decide what to include in the property list since the Nazis already knew and possibly already had access to some of the property abroad. The situation was muddled and uncertain.

Already in May 1938, the F & P Kamp business, whose only owner was Fritz Kamp, was liquidated. Two days later the sale of the Brothers Kamp were recorded in Krefeld by the lawyer Hersing. The new owner was Hans Wilhelm Schobbenhaus, a Party member, which was the usual situation in the Arization process. The sales price was set at 98,000 Marks. This had to be approved by the county president and the foreign exchange office. Additionally, emigration tax and the tax on Jews were to be deducted. The sale was basically a loss and necessitated preparation for flight.

In Essen, too, the Bros. Kamp was "Arizated" in August, 1938. Beginning with the company Strenger & Schaefer taking over the rent for the business, assuring that they had the right to own the business. Later the emigration tax and the tax on Jews were paid.It is not surprising that this business in Essen is still in the same location, continuing to deal in animal skins and butcher supplies.

In July 1938 the Duesseldorf business was taken over by the Party member Jean Hauptmann, who obviously had not idea at all about the business. For a long time he retained Arthur Cohen, son of Isaac and Eva Cohen, to run the business. It was not unusual that the Party members had no knowledge about running the businesses they now owned. Additionally, they could not understand the industry language by the butchers and dealers at the stockyard. Their mixture of various dialects and Hebrew had formed a bond with the businesses and served as a secret code dating back for many years when Jews worked as animal traders and land servants. Note: Jean Hauptmann was supposed to pay Arthur Cohen for running the business, but never paid anything. Also, this makes it sound as though I & I Cohen was part of the Brothers Kamp business. It was totally independent, very successful, so that the various Kamp brothers constantly asked both Isaac and his son Arthur Cohen for advice. Possibly having just one successful family- Isaac and Arthur - meant better management than having so many Kamp brothers running the show.

Thus in 1938 the successful business of the Bros. Kamp ceased to exist. It ended the story, began in Krefeld, of an innovative company which, constantly expanding through their courage and research, had monopolized the industry. It was clear to all participants that there was no future for them under the Nazi rule in Germany. This came as a huge shock to Adolf Kamp who, together with his brother Michael, had developed his father's business in Krefeld. He, who was the successful entrepreneur of Jewish businesses in Krefeld, and who had turned over to his children a flourishing company in a city which he praised for its tolerance and emancipation, could not understand that the end of his businesses was sealed. But there was no way out. By mid-1938 all Jewish businesses had ceased to exist.

In Essen Albert and Leo also clearly understood that they could no longer continue their success. For Albert, who was a genius in innovation and establishing business connections, this was hard to understand. Leo had long considered how he could continue after the Arization. As often happens, the children's generation was more flexible. Some time ago his sons Ewald and Rudy had left Paris for Chicago. He and his wife Betty had the option to move back with her family in Zurich. Albert was in a similar situation. His son Alexander was in Brazil, married to Gabriele Burle-Marx, whom he had met coincidentally in Cologne, and which eventually meant that many lives were saved. In the meantime his daughter Ilse and Kurt Stern had a son whom they named Hans. Hans Stern - a name to be remembered.

In Krefeld the situation was similar. Losing the business, the basis of their existence, emigration was considered early on and the necessary connections were established. Fritz Kamp had plotted to go to Holland where he probably had already transferred a great deal of money. The question was, should one reveal these illegal transfers, or perhaps leave soon and use the relevant contacts for emigration. Probably England was also considered since both Fritz and Inge were fluent in English, having attended boarding schools, including Fritz in Edinburgh. They could leave, but their parents had to be left behind.

These considerations were also debated in Duesseldorf. Adolf's sister Eva, together with her husband Isaac Cohen, had built their business I & I Cohen early on. They were also the first to move directly next to the newly built stockyards on Rather Street. For some time the business had been run by their son Arthur, who was extremely capable, but now faced the same dilemma. To emigrate, continue on, or what should be done? A future for a Jewish business under the Nazis seemed totally impossible, even though the Party member Jean Hausmann, as owner of the business, needed continuous help. For Arthur Cohen and his wife Aenne, (nee Goldschmidt who had lived in Krefeld at Ostwall 263) a different decision was made. For his security, they sent their son Walter to a boarding school in England. It is surprising that as late as September Arthur Cohen could accompany his son Walter to England. But Arthur returned to Duesseldorf, to continue to run the business and to support his parents.

Fritz Kamp and his young family had similar consideration. But then he managed, in the last months, to obtain emigration papers for everyone. Note:It is rumored that documents connecting her to the Gestapo, were found for Fritz's sister Else, a total ineffable situation for a Jewish family. But such documents were never found. Additionally Fritz and his father were arrested in September and imprisoned for one day. The reason is unknown, but possibly it concerned currency regulations. All of the Bros. Kamp businesses in Krefeld had now been discontinued or had been Arizated. In September 1938 Schobbenhaus had acquired the remaining houses in the Peter Street for 40,000 Marks. The only house left was Adolf and Henriette Kamp's. At some time, either the end of September or in October, Fritz Kamp applied for the official emigration papers for his family and eagerly awaited the approval. It was necessary for his business to have been Arizated and other matters to be settled. Approval of a travel pass was not simple. The business had to be officially transferred and thus recorded in the Land Registry.

At this time the Nazis seemed willing to allow the Jews to emigrate - preferably with no more than 10 Marks. All other property was to be absorbed by taxes and currency regulations. Those who wished to emigrate had to do so in total poverty. And yet to be accepted abroad, immigrants had to prove that they were able to support themselves or had a guarantor who willing to underwrite them. Beginning August 17, the Jews in Germany had to legally accept an additional name. Thus Fritz Kamp became Fritz Israel Kamp. And Inge became Inge Sarah Kamp. Yet another step in the stigma. In addition, beginning in October, all travel documents had to be stamped with a "J" so that the Jewish identity would always and without a doubt be obvious.

Compared to other families Fritz Kamp had the advantage of considerable funds in Holland, which he had not declared. And his cousin (from his mother's side) Fritz Lambertz lived in Venlo and had become a well-known fabricator of club furniture, and was willing to be the guarantor. Venlo and Krefeld were only 30 kilometer apart, so it was possible that Fritz could cross the so-called green border and return to Krefeld in order to help his parents Adolf and Henriette. Furthermore, Fritz was not willing to totally give up the Bros. Kamp business. In Holland he tried to continue as an entrepreneur, using his contacts and money. If no longer in Krefeld, then why not somewhere else? But it was important to find a credible Dutch partner because in Holland also German Jews were no longer allowed to be in business, even if they had considerable capital and could create new jobs. Worse was yet to come with the total destruction of the Krefeld Jewish community and its buildings.

The Pogrom and burning synagogues

During the night November 9 to 10, 1938, synagogues were burning everywhere in Germany. In Krefeld too, the synagogue, just 80 meters away from the Bros. Kamp business, was totally destroyed. All archives, and thus the history of the Jewish community, was destroyed. It was just 80 years ago that this synagogue, with the help of active churches, was built. Now it burned down to the foundation. People who tried to extinguish the flames, and even the Fire Department, were turned back. The only thing that was saved was a tiny scrap of the Torah. Thus ended the Jewish community in Krefeld.

The order for the nationwide pogrom night originated in Munich where, that evening, Goebbels had given an inflammatory speech against the Jews following an attack and consequent death of the county official Ernst von Rath. This inspired those present, especially the SA leaders, to violent action. The orders for total destruction were issued at about 10:30 that evening, and were immediately followed. A few hours later, around 2 in the morning, the order for destruction was given in Duesseldorf. There the Gestapo's goal was to create a clear punishing sign, without loss of life, and restricted the action to the destruction of the Jewish businesses, but without looting them. Note: Margot Cohen Goldberg was at her Duesseldorf home when it was destroyed. She said the Nazis were ordered to her house at about 12:30 but when they got there would not come in out of respect for my grandfather. At about 4 AM they finally found enough thugs willing to break in.

In Krefeld the significant participants were about 20 young men, stationed at the local officers' base. They broke down the doors of the synagogue and spread gasoline. Both the quickly summoned police and the Fire Department stood by passively. The Community House, Siegmund Kamp's former tie factory, was also burned down to the foundation. Actually they overacted here, since the SDAP had plans to use the house as a new Party headquarters. Even though there had been no official order to destroy it, it was burned and looted. Later a fireman reported that instead of extinguishing the flames, they got drunk on the alcohol they found there. Fritz and Inge Kamp, who had been in Duesseldorf that evening, saw the burning synagogue as they were returning home.

At the same time Jewish businesses throughout Germany were raided and looted. In Essen, too, the big synagogue was burning and Kurt Stern's business nearby was also destroyed and looted. Thanks to a prior warning, the Stern family - Kurt and Ilse Kamp Stern, Albert Kamp's daughter, and their son Hans were able to flee to Cologne where a priest hid them for several days.

Besides the destruction of the Jewish businesses, Jewish homes were also raided during this night. Furniture was destroyed and, if possible, the Jewish owners and other important people were arrested. In Duesseldorf at Graf Recke street 49 (not 45 as mentioned here) they forced their way into the house belonging to Isaak Cohen (age 79) and his wife Eva Kamp Cohen (age 75). Note: Margot Cohen Goldberg corrected this statement. This was her parents' home. Her grandparents, Isaak and Eva, moved in after the Rather street business was "Arizated" several months before. Everything in the Cohen homewas destroyed, not one piece of china was left intact. Note: Margot Cohen Goldberg says this is not entirely true because as the Nazis entered the kitchen the modern electric refrigerator began to hum and they did not know what that was and so got scared and left the kitchen, but they did destroy all the fine china etc. in the dining room. Using excessive force, they totally destroyed the interior including the lighting fixture. Again Margot Cohen Goldberg says this not completely true: the Nazis would not enter the master bedroom where "the child" who was Margot, was sleeping. Margot's mother Johanna, mother with great foresight had put her there. Thus, although the rest of the house was a total rubble heap, they had two usable rooms. However, being responsible and well-known Duesseldorf citizens, it was inconceivable to the family that someone would break into their house and destroy it. During the raid, Eva Kamp Cohen suffered a heart attack from which she never recovered because, as a Jew, she could no longer have adequate medical care.

Arthur Cohen, Isaak and Eva's son, and the business manager of I & I Cohen, was taken to prison and from there directly to the Dachau concentration camp, supposedly into protective custody. Note: Isaac was also arrested but was returned after a few days. Because of his gout he had difficulty walking.

During this night Hugo Loewenstein, husband of Johanna Davids Lowenstein, Julie Kamp's daughter, was also arrested in Bocholt. Also arrested was Hermann Mannsbach, the husband of her sister Martha, who owned a business trading in animal skins. All were taken to Dachau where they wore prison clothing and had their heads shaved. On the first day in Krefeld, 32 people were arrested and taken to Dachau, including Chief Rabbi Dr. Arthur Bluhm, the tie manufacturers Ernst and Alfred Stern, Dr. Kurt Alexander, and other individuals. On the following day the destruction and arrests continued, including Richard Merlaender and Julius Nassau, who formerly managed the Tietz department store. The Bros Kamp business was not touched because it was widely known that the business had been arizated. Actually 51 people on the first list were supposed to be arrested, but some had been forewarned and were able to hide, others were traveling.

Fritz and Inge Kamp could prove that they were in Duesseldorf that evening meeting with the foreign exchange inspector Axel Janssen. There they were making the final arrangements for their emigration, clearing up any questions. After they returned to Krefeld, on the next day, Fritz Kamp, as usual, went to his business. He saw the burned synagogue but his emigration had already been approved so he immediately went to see the notary Hersing and there, under oath, declared that Albert and Leo Kamp from Essen, as well as the foreign currency inspector Janssen were aware of his property valued at 30,000 Marks. In the same night the Kamps with both of their children left Krefeld forever.

Paul Kamp could also avoid arrest. Already on November 11 he had signed over his house to the Widow Dutzi for an amount of money. (Probably he used the money to organize his flight. It is also possible that he gave some of the money to his aunt Ella Belmont Kamp and her daughter Gertrud for the same purpose.) Three days later he and his wife Helene Wallerstein Kamp fled to Brussels. It is assumed that, like Fritz in Holland, he had good business contacts in Belgium. Soon after Paul was divorced and married Herta Schwartz, the daughter of the manager of the Bros. Kamp business in Dortmund. This way he could use his formerly established contacts. In Belgium Paul Kamp escaped the holocaust. (Supposedly after the war, Herta Schwartz ran away with the Chauffeur to Italy. There is no further trace of her.)

In Huels, Max David's son Walter David was arrested and sent to the concentration camp Dachau. There he met other Jews from Krefeld and surrounding areas. Shortly after, the arrest spurred his emigration to Rhodesia. Oddly, the arrest saved his life.

Leo Kamp, because of his marriage to Betty Pollag, was protected from the raids. Unfortunately it is not known where Albert Kamp was during this night. Possibly he was with his brother Leo, or he fled Cologne together with his daughter Inge. After his wife's death he probably was much closer to his family.After the pogrom night, the arrests continued. Adolf Kamp was listed on the second Gestapo list as an influential Jewish citizen. Possibly at 73 years of age he was considered too old to be arrested. Another consideration that may have protected him was his service during World War I. The second wave of arrests named as criteria that the people sent to the camps must be able to work and should not be older than 55 years. The same seemed to apply to Isaac Cohen in Duesseldorf. He himself was a soldier in World War (later he was sent to Theresienstadt) and his second son Adolf died in combat in 1918 (one week before the war ended). His oldest son Arthur was arrested and sent to Dachau. No one knew what might happen from day to day.

In fact, the SA minions reached their goal during the night. Besides the destruction of the businesses and homes, the arrest of every Jewish owner was to make it clear that they did not have a future in Germany. Shortly after the pogrom night and the arrests a new order was issued on November 12, 1938. By January 1, 1939, all Jews were to be excluded from the German economy by finally eliminating their participation in all retail, crafts, and market activities. In addition, German Jews were to pay for the pogrom night damage costs of one million marks. Finally on November 17, 1938, the arrests stopped. The Gestapo ordered that the seized property in the Jewish businesses may not interfere with the Arization.

Thus the first group of prisoners was released. Chief Rabbi Dr. Arthur Bluhm was released with the understanding that he must emigrate. He fled to England in July 1939 and later continued to serve as Rabbi in Amarillo, USA. Also released were Alfred Stern and his brother Ernst so that they could finalize the Arization of their internationally known tie manufacturing factory. Both were then able to emigrate. Hermann Mannsbach in Beverungen had hidden during the night in the washroom of a dilapidated house, so he was not sent to Dachau. His wife Martha, who was 25 years younger than her husband and a trained nurse, was able to demand his freedom.

For Arthur Cohen from Duesseldorf it was another story. Party member Jean Hausmann, who had taken over the business, demanded that Dachau return Arthur Cohen to Duesseldorf. Obviously he was so inept at running the business that Arthur Cohen's presence in the business was urgently needed. Arthur Cohen, who only weeks before was in England, and because of the illness of his mother, worked for the new owner another year. On December 29, 1939, Eva Cohen, living in the destroyed house in Duesseldorf, died as a result of her heart attack. She never regained consciousness.

At this time many Jews were still able to emigrate.When the family Stern returned to Essen, nothing was left in the business. At the same time the business had to be arizated. Within a short period they decided to emigrate to Brazil, where Ilse Stern's brother, Alexander Kamp, had been living with his wife Gabriele Burle-Marx since 1935. To finance the emigration, on December 7 her father Kamp sold his house to the butcher Jakob Kerz from Essen for 25,000 marks. On February 16, 1939, the Sterns and Albert Kamp left Essen and emigrated to Rio. Their son was just 12. The only thing he took with him was his accordion. Years later he had developed an amazing career as the most significant jeweler in the world, building his own jewelry emporium with 160 stores in 14 countries. Obviously he had inherited the entrepreneurial ability of his grandfather Albert Kamp. A few months after arriving in Rio, Albert Kamp died.

In January 1939 Leo Kamp and his wife Betty Pollag Kamp from Essen emigrated to Zurich. Although many other Jews were denied emigration to Switzerland, Leo and Betty were able to move back to the family Pollag. Therefore there were no problems for their emigration. Shortly after, they both continued on to Chicago, where their sons Ewald and Rudy lived.

Adolf Kamp and Henriette also followed their son Fritz and in February 1939 emigrated to Dinxperlo, Holland. Actually this was what was listed in the Gestapo files. It is also possible that together with Fritz and Inge they illegally crossed the border to flee from Krefeld - their home town. Therefore it was a flight, not an emigration. Adolf Kamp could not believe that the persecution and destruction of Jewish citizens could happen in Krefeld. He had become successful during the time of tolerance and emancipation. But in the end he had to let everything go, his memorials from his participation in World War I, and his foundation of a well-respected business which he and his brothers had developed.

It was surprising that Martha David's husband Hermann Mannsbach's animal skin business was still under Jewish leadership at the beginning of April 1939. Only after urgent orders by the new mayor this too was arizated.

In Duesseldorf Eugen Cohen, Arthur's brother, was able to emigrate to Birmingham in England in March 1939. Due to an injury he received in World War I he had long been treated in the Marien Hospital. Obviously nobody cared that he should stay, so he took the first opportunity to leave. He left his dying mother and his aging father in the care of his brother Arthur. At about the same time Arthur Cohen managed to get his daughter Margot on a Kindertransport to England to secure her safety. For himself, however, his opportunities were gone. Even after his mother died, his presence was continuously demanded by the new owner Jean Hauptmann. Then the consulates closed. A frantic letter exchange followed with Arthur Cohen describing his situation. Even Leo Kamp in Chicago was not able to help him to the USA even though he and his son Rudy several times guaranteed for him. Note: Not necessarily so according to Uncle Eugene's letter which is on file. As a last hope emigration to Cuba was considered but this too was not possible, the consulates had closed.

In September 1940 Arthur Cohen was forced into a working group for a horticultural project. In June 1941 the papers for emigration were still not in order. Finally on September 12, 1941, he received the notice from Siegfried Israel Krieger of the Emigration office in Essen that he could emigrate by the end of October. On October 23, 1941, Heinrich Himmler decreed that the emigration of Jewish citizens was suspended for the duration of the war. Four days later, on October 27, 1941, Arthur Cohen spent his last night in Duesseldorf, just 50 meters from the business in the Rather Street 58. In the stockyards Duesseldorf-Derendorf he, together with Johanna Davids Loewenstein and her husband Hugo from Krefeld (and my mother), waited for transport to Litzmannstadt. None survived the holocaust. Arthur Cohen and his wife Johanna Aenne) Cohen were sent to the death camp Kulmhof in September 1942 and murdered. All interventions had come to nothing. Note:Johanna and Hugo Loewenstein's son Rudy, who had escaped to Canada, later established a memorial for his parents in Yad Vaschem.

The memorial at the Duesseldorf Schlachthof, opposite the Ratherstreet business, has documented this history. This exhibition is on the grounds of the Schlachthof, now the new Technical College. I hope all of you will go to see it.

His father, Isaac Cohen, together with his wife Eva Kamp, had founded the business I & I Cohen in 1881 with many innovative ideas. In July 1942 he was deported to Theresienstadt where after only six days he died from total exhaustion and lung inflammation.On the same train was Louise Davids Mohr, whose divorced (non-Jewish) husband had heavily intervened with the Gestapo. She died in Auschwitz on May 15, 1944. Her father, the well-known and honored animal trader Max Davids, who was married to Julie Kamp, was deported to Theresienstadt on February 23, 1943. His daughter Johanna Davids and her husband Hugo Lowenstein were deported from Duesseldorf to Litzmannstadt. Hugo died there on Christmas eve 1941. Johanna was gassed in July 1944 in the death camp Kulmhof.

Amanda Reiss Kamp, Michael Kamp's wife and mother of Paul, together with her sister Berta Reiss Lambertz, presumably emigrated to Amsterdam in 1939. In March 1943 she was gassed in Auschwitz. Before her deportation in Auschwitz she had been interned in the camp Westerbork. In the meantime German citizenship was taken away from all members of the Kamp family. Mostly after the foundation of the Jewish organization B'nai B'rith. All businesses of the Bros Kamp in Germany had ceased to exist. Only Ella Belmont Kamp, wife of Siegmund Kamp the tie manufacturer, and her daughter Gertrud eventually returned to Krefeld and are buried in the new Jewish cemetery there.

Our translation of the excerpts from Die Geschichte der jüdischen Familie Kamp aus Krefeld ends here. However, the book has more fascinating chapters on the Kamp story. The footnotes below provide additional information on the families and stories mentioned in the book

[1] Sophia EPHRAIM appears to be part of a large EPHRAIM /TIEL family from The Netherlands. Moses EPHRAIM, born around 1620 would be her great-great grandfather. It's suggested this family originated in Germany or Central Europe before 1620. More details are on the website

[2] Adolphine Sibilla DANIELS (more often called Sibilla) is part of the DANIELS family from Drove. Other DANIELS or sometimes DANIEL married into the KAMP family. We have much of the genealogy of the Jewish residents of Drove and several surrounding towns.

[3] Immigration records indicate that Werner traveled twice from Europe to the US between 1938 and 1941. In 1938 he left alone from Germany; in 1941 he brought his three-year old son, Ralph. Records indicate they were living in Marseille, France before departing for the U.S. We hope to obtain more information on the Lindheim history.